New PDF release: A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities

By Erna E. Kritzinger

ISBN-10: 0723409153

ISBN-13: 9780723409151

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Extra info for A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities

Example text

In birds and some other nonmammalian species that lack retractor oculi muscles, movement of the nictitating membrane is directly controlled by a fanshaped muscle, the pyramidalis muscle, attached to the posterior surface of the sclera. Specifically, the pyramidalis and the quadratus muscles are skeletal muscles controlled by the oculomotor nucleus that serve to move the third eyelid anteriorly. Lacrimal and Nasolacrimal System An adequate supply of tears covering the partially exposed anterior segment of the globe and associated adnexa is necessary for optical integrity, maintenance of the cornea, and normal eye function.

The free margin of the eyelid may contain a row of cilia or lashes. These lashes are directed away from the anterior surface of the cornea. The lower eyelids are devoid of lashes in most domestic species. 5). , cilia) that usually begin near the medial quarter or third and either extend across to the lateral canthus or end shortly before the canthus. 5. Surface anatomy of the dog’s eye and adnexa at rest. A, medial canthus; B, lateral canthus; C, cilia; D, free margin of nonpigmented membrana nicitans; E, ciliary zone of iris; F, pupillary zone of iris; G, pupillary ruff; H, collarette.

33). The external boundary of the corneoscleral trabecular meshwork is formed by the sclera and a plexus of aqueous humor collector vessels. In mammals and most lower vertebrates, the aqueous humor chiefly exits the eye through the trabecular meshworks into these vessels. 32 / Essentials of Veterinary Ophthalmology Choroid The choroid is the large posterior portion of the uveal coat, and is composed primarily of blood vessels (mainly thin-walled veins) and pigmented support tissues. It is the major source of nutrition for the outer layers of the retina, which are immediately adjacent.

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A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities by Erna E. Kritzinger

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