By Gwendolyn Leick
This Dictionary offers a entire survey of the full diversity of old close to jap structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the large temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the improvement of the imperative types of old structure inside their geographical and historic context, and describes good points of significant websites equivalent to Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to a few of the lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the differences of regular historical architectural buildings equivalent to pyramids, tombs and homes, info the development fabric and strategies hired, and clarifies expert terminology.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture
It contains thirty-nine ROCK TOMBS dating from the XI and XII Dynasties (c. Beni-Hasan: rock-cut tomb (Middle Kingdom) 2133–1786 BC) which had been commissioned by wealthy administrators (nomarchs). The oldest tombs at Beni-Hasan have a simple square tomb-chamber with a single or treble row of columns or pillars cut from the rock. Later examples have larger chambers with lotus columns and the late tombs are fronted by vaulted porticoes supported by eight- or sixteen-sided, gracefully tapered and fluted (ProtoDoric) pillars.
It is therefore not surprising that baked bricks were only used exceptionally in Ancient Near Eastern architecture; as a rule, only on such parts of a building that were likely to be exposed to damp (in courtyards, bathrooms, drains, the revetment of ziggurats, foundation walls near rivers etc). In Egypt, baked bricks were not employed before the Roman period at all. In Mesopotamia, they were used on an unprecedented scale during the NeoBabylonian period (see BABYLON). bamah Hebrew word translated as ‘High Place’ in the English version of the Old Testament where it is mentioned unfavourably alongside the ‘groves’ as a pagan cult place.
Early Anatolia (Harmondsworth 1956) 163 bitumen Latin word for naturally occurring semisolid hydrocarbon (petroleum). According to the Vulgate translation of the Bible, the Babylonians used ‘bitumen instead of mortar’ (Genesis 11, 3). There Baked bricks set in bitumen (Babylon, palace of Nebukadrezzar) are indeed numerous bitumen springs in South Mesopotamia as well as on the Dead Sea. There is some evidence that the substance (called ittu or kupru in Akkadian) was indeed used as MORTAR: eg at ABU SHAHREIN or UR, where the plano-convex bricks during the Early Dynastic period were laid in bitumen.
A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture by Gwendolyn Leick