Peter K Trabant's Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore PDF

By Peter K Trabant

ISBN-10: 9400964935

ISBN-13: 9789400964938

ISBN-10: 9400964951

ISBN-13: 9789400964952

The self-discipline encompassing using high-resolution geophysics for acquiring geoengineering survey information has developed swiftly during the last a long time to turn into an interdisciplinary topic encompassing the fields of Geophysics, engineering, geology, marine geology, oceanography, and civil engineering. whereas high-resolution geophysical surveys are generally played offshore at the present time, this has been so basically because the past due Sixties. High-resolution geophysical equipment are hired within the offshore surroundings to acquire a finished photo of the sea-floor mor­ phology and underlying shallow stratigraphy. the aim of the survey tools is to aid within the layout and set up of bottom-supported constructions comparable to drilling and creation structures and pipelines. Drilling constructions and pipelines of metal and/or concrete became behemoths with appreciate to their measurement and the complexity in their layout in an effort to stand up to, for classes of as much as twenty-five years, an exceptionally harsh atmosphere, together with hurricane waves, powerful currents, volatile sea­ ground stipulations, and nice water depths. it's for that reason of paramount value that the geometry and actual houses of the ocean flooring be good understood with a purpose to supply an enough beginning for the layout lives of such buildings. On land, engineering starting place info frequently can be acquired via field of vision inspection and shallow borehole details, yet offshore the presence of the water column locations definite constraints on geoengineering investigations. High-resolution geophysical tools hired within the acquisition of geoengineering facts offshore are outlined because the use of seismic assets and receivers that function at acoustic frequencies more than a hundred Hz.

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Extra info for Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore Geoengineering Hazards

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018d (in rn/sec) In practice the velocity employed for computing the water depth should be a mean value for the portion of the water column under consideration, as illustrated by figure 4A. In shallow water this mean value is that obtained by the bar check calibration procedure, described in a later section. In order to obtain precise water depths from an echo-sounding survey it is imperative that the correct average velocity of sound through the water column be used. S. charting agencies (DMA, NOAA) use 1500 rn/sec as their standard (3).

The ability of a given system to resolve a particular unit is a function of the source frequency and the receiver/recorder system, and its ability to display a seismic reflector. While mostly a function of the frequency, other factors must also be taken into consideration, such as the thickness of the reflecting horizon and the sharpness of the boundary between the strata producing a reflection. In theory, the resolution of a system is on the order of a quarter wavelength (X). 12 m. In practice, however, this is rarely achieved, and resolution on the order of a third or half of X is more common.

0 r---. 0. 5 ~ ~ ' ,-, -- ' --- . 0 ~ I! - ·- I. 0 l ·-·· 10 100 PRESSURE TSF. 9 Curve of void ratio (e) versus log of pressure (P), for typical marine clay from Gulf of Mexico. {From Trabant, P. S. ) to as an e-log P curve, as illustrated in fig. 9. This curve may be employed by the civil engineer to compute the amount of settling that would be expected for a given Ioad. Thus, if the stress applied to the soil by a jack-up rig were XXX kPa, the soil would yield by expelling a percentage of its water, and decreasing its void ratio (consolidation) over a given period of time, allowing for settlement of the rig.

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Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore Geoengineering Hazards by Peter K Trabant

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