Download e-book for kindle: Beginner's Arabic Script by John Mace

By John Mace

ISBN-10: 0340860162

ISBN-13: 9780340860168

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Extra resources for Beginner's Arabic Script

Example text

The MTBF has, however, become a useful measure of reliability for comparison purposes. There are two ways of calculating or predicting this measure of reli- How reliabilily is calculated 21 ability. Taking, as an example, electronic equipments: (i) By estimating failure rates for all the parts in the equipment, multiplying these by the number of parts, then relating this to the total equipment MTBE (ii) From previous experience with similar equipment, set up equations which can be used to predict an MTBF for a new equipment.

Approx. 10 O ~ 16 000 20 0(~ 30 000 44 O ~ hours hours hours hours hours (5 years) Life e x p e c t a n c y = m e a n life It is of interest to compare the life expectancies of some well-known objects with that of a modem integrated circuit. ) 28 An Elementary Guide to Reliability Redundancy In general, redundancy means more than one way of accomplishing a required function. It can take many forms: partial, active, stand-by, etc. Partial redundancy can be illustrated by spokes in a bicycle wheel; even if some of them are broken the wheel will not fail.

In the event of a serious fault there can be so many warning signals that the operator can be presented with much more information than can be assimilated and acted on correctly under emergency conditions; for instance, in a nuclear power station. The operator is consequently unable to distinguish the actual fault, and the malfunctions arising from the fault, from the mass of warning information being presented. Designing a warning system which will be effective in all fault conditions is therefore complex and difficult, and must be closely related to human characteristics; it will involve such considerations as the nature and positioning of warning signals, the priority in which they require attention under various fault conditions, and the ability and speed with which an operator can be expected to respond to them correctly in an emergency.

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Beginner's Arabic Script by John Mace

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