By Andrew R. Elkington, Helena J. Frank, Michael J. Greaney
Written to aid trainee ophthalmologists, this textbook is now the acknowledged textual content on optics for the examinations of the Royal university of Ophthalmologists and the Royal Surgical schools. It techniques the topic from first ideas and assumes no earlier wisdom of optics. The publication has been saved so simple as attainable and is liberally complemented with diagrams designed to be simply understood and memorised. in basic terms the main basic and clinically worthy mathematical formulae are quoted, and the optical rules are utilized to scientific events. Ophthalmology examinations have replaced considerably because the final variation was once written and a complete rewrite of this crucial advisor has turn into invaluable. The 3rd version has been made extra entire and unique to take care of with those adjustments and comprises 3 new chapters: refractive surgical procedure, touch lenses and lasers. different new fabric contains photometry, visible acuity, distinction sensitivity, color imaginative and prescient, absorptive lenses, fluorescence, ultrasound, and the specular microscope.
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Additional info for Clinical Optics
These include decompensated heterophorias, small vertical squints and some paralytic squints with diplopia in the primary position. Prisms are reserved for those patients for whom surgery is not indicated. Forms of Therapeutic Prism (1) Temporary wear. Prisms used in treatment include clip-on spectacle prisms for trial wear. An improvement on these are Fresnel prisms, which are available in all powers employed clinically. A Fresnel prism consists of a plastic sheet of parallel tiny prisms of identical refracting angle (Fig.
3). Deviation is reduced to a minimum when light passes through the prism symmetrically. There are two primary positions in which the power of a prism may be specified, the position of minimum deviation Fig. 3 Image formation by a prism. html (1 of 2)9/30/2006 2:35:20 PM Document Page 45 and the Prentice position. In the Prentice position one surface of the prism is normal to the ray of light so that all the deviation takes place at the other surface of the prism (Fig. 4). Fig. 4 The Prentice position of a prism.
The orthoptist measures the angle of squint by two methods. Using the synoptophore, she measures the angle between the visual axes of the eyes in degrees, + signifying esotropia and – signifying exotropia. html9/30/2006 2:35:22 PM Document Page 49 She also measures the angle of squint by the prism cover test (PCT). The alternating cover test is performed, placing prisms of increasing strength before one eye, until movement of the eyes is eliminated (Fig. 8). The result is expressed in prism dioptres, eso signifying esotropia and exo signifying exotropia.
Clinical Optics by Andrew R. Elkington, Helena J. Frank, Michael J. Greaney