By Craig D. Atwood
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, used to be a special colonial city. It used to be the 1st everlasting outpost of the Moravians in North the United States and served because the headquarters for his or her huge missionary efforts. It was once additionally probably the most profitable communal societies in American heritage. Bethlehem was once based as a 'congregation of the pass' the place all facets of private and social lifestyles have been subordinated to the non secular perfect of the group. In group of the go Craig D. Atwood bargains a powerful portrait of Bethlehem and its faith. viewers to Bethlehem, akin to Benjamin Franklin, remarked at the orderly and peaceable nature of existence in the neighborhood, its outstanding structure, and 'high' tradition. even though, many non-Moravians have been embarrassed or perhaps angry by means of the social and devotional lifetime of the Moravians. The adoration of the crucified Jesus, in particular his wounds, was once the point of interest of excessive devotion for adults and youngsters alike. Moravians worshiped the Holy Spirit as 'Mother,' and made the magical marriage to Christ imperative to their marital intimacy. every thing, even kin lifestyles, was once to be a sort of worship. Atwood unearths the deep connection among lifestyles in Bethlehem and the spiritual symbolism of debatable German theologian Nicholas von Zinzendorf, whose provocative and erotic adoration of the injuries of Jesus used to be an important a part of inner most and communal existence. utilizing the theories of Rene Girard, Mary Douglas, and Victor Turner, Atwood exhibits that it used to be the Moravians' liturgy and devotion that united the group and encouraged either its exact social constitution and venture attempt.
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Extra info for Community of the Cross: Moravian Piety in Colonial Bethlehem (Max Kade German-American Research Institute Series)
Based on his portrayal of the Sifting, we might compare it to the ‘‘Summer of Love’’ in San Francisco in . It was a time when a youth culture frightened the authorities. . Reichel, ‘‘Das Ende des Bru¨ dergemeine,’’ –. On the Danebrog controversy and its relationship to the split between Halle and Zinzendorf, see Ward, Protestant Evangelical Awakening, –. . Reichel, ‘‘Das Ende des Bru¨ dergemeine,’’ . . Jan. , , Bethlehem Diary (Moravian Archives). 10483$ INTR 01-09-04 08:44:19 PS those who are sick had also received their portion of the body, Br.
For more on Spener, see Johannes Wallmann, Philipp Jakob Spener und die Anfa¨ nge des Pietismus (Tu¨ bingen, ). . Ward, Protestant Evangelical Awakening, . Ward notes that more than , volumes were available in German. . Philipp Jakob Spener, Pia Desideria, trans. Theodore G. Tappert (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, ). 10483$ $CH1 01-09-04 08:45:30 PS bitter war of polemic was waged between the Orthodox and the Pietists that led to legal actions in some areas.
Because it was noticeably absent from the Peace of Westphalia (and thus in the same category as Anabaptist groups), the resurrection of the church would be an act of rebellion against the Peace of Westphalia. However, the Moravian refugees resisted being absorbed into the Lutheran parish on Zinzendorf’s estate, just as their ancestors had resisted absorption during the Reformation. However one interprets this complex and confusing history, it is clear that the Moravians under Zinzendorf did not re-create the old Unitas Fratrum.
Community of the Cross: Moravian Piety in Colonial Bethlehem (Max Kade German-American Research Institute Series) by Craig D. Atwood