By Peter Wooding, Graham Burton
Technology produces interesting puzzles: why is there the sort of diversity of placental constructions while different mammalian organs are so structurally uniform ? Why and the way did the several placental constructions evolve ? Comparative placental experiences can facilitate the identity of the typical components in placental progress, differentiation and serve as and their relevance to attainable evolutionary pathways. Comparative Placentation is the single e-book proposing up to date information illustrating the good number of constitution yet uniform functionality of vertebrate placentas from fish to guy. this knowledge is vital for number of compatible types to enquire specific functional difficulties of impaired or anomalous progress in human and animal placentation. the original number of the simplest gentle and electron micrographs from the final thirtyfive years which accurately illustrate the structural diversity in every one taxon, make the ebook the main authoritative book during this box and an important resource of knowledge for someone on reproductive body structure, anatomy and drugs.
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Extra resources for Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution
Consequently, a choriovitelline placenta is never formed in the classical sense, and it has generally been assumed that the yolk sac plays no role in nutrition of the early embryo. However, the outer mesodermal layer of the yolk sac possesses all the morphological features of an absorptive epithelium (Enders and King 1993), and the recent demonstration of the presence of specific transport proteins indicates that it may serve an important function (Jauniaux et al. 2004). Furthermore, the exocoelomic fluid is rich in amino acids and other nutrients (Jauniaux and Gulbis 2000), Thus in higher primates there may be a physiological choriovitelline placenta, although not an anatomical one.
This process continues throughout pregnancy (Fig. 2), contributing to an integral layer of the placenta and/or delivering to the maternal tissue the granules which contain placental lactogen among other constituents (Fig. 2). Further details and a discussion of the relevance of this system can be found in Chap. 6 on synepitheliochorial placentation below and Wooding (1992). Other examples of fetomaternal fusion may well occur in other placentas, but without unequivocal markers it is difficult to recognize and verify such unexpected events.
Decidualisation initiates the changes: the swelling and disorganisation of the muscle and elastic layers. This is then reinforced by cytotrophoblast cells migrating into the wall from the arterial lumen (endovascular) and/or from the surrounding decidual tissue (interstitial). The cytotrophoblasts are involved in the elimination of the endothelium and the elastic and muscle layers of the arteries, replacing them eventually with cytotrophoblast cells and their syncytial derivatives dispersed between tubular lamellae of fibrinoid and lining the lumen.
Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution by Peter Wooding, Graham Burton