By Ben Yudkin
Textbooks are designed to coach, clarify and make complicated details simply understood and assimilated. study papers do the reader no such favours. with the ability to comprehend and use fundamental study is a necessary device in any clinical profession. This e-book teaches those beneficial talents easily and obviously, saving hours in the end. severe examining explains tips on how to: approach each paper methodically spot paintings aimed to help a puppy idea gain self belief in wondering what you learn be alert to bias use abstracts intelligently identify suspect experimental equipment assess quantitative method interpret effects with self assurance draw inferences from released paintings. utilizing extracts from released Papers in concentration, this e-book imparts useful information to scholars and researchers from any biomedical or organic self-discipline. The textual content is well learn and understood and using key issues, summaries and reference reinforces reliable process.
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Extra info for Critical Reading: Making Sense of Papers in Life Sciences and Medicine (Routledge Study Guides)
When we study . . genetics, we often randomly mutagenize [organisms] and look for mutants that are deﬁcient in the process that we’re studying. If we generate many mutants, how do we tell how many of them are mutated in the same gene, and how many different genes there are? One method is to do a complementation test. If two [individuals] are crossed to each other, and each is mutated in the same gene, function will not be restored. On the other hand, if the mutations are in different genes, then the good copy of each gene in the other [individual] will fulﬁll the function of the mutated gene, or complement it .
Sometimes the same pool of results was written up several times, again often without adequate cross-referencing. Large studies could be performed across multiple research centres, with data from those centres that gave a particularly favourable result being selected for publication. Half of the studies submitted to the regulator showed signiﬁcantly beneﬁcial effects for the test drug, while the other half did not; but over 90% of the favourable studies appeared as stand-alone publications, compared with under 30% of the less favourable studies.
First, assessments do not take account of the question asked. Once an appropriate question has been formulated, the experiment may do a very good job of investigating it; but even the most reliable answer is not informative if the question was not appropriate. ’ Clearly, testing a novel treatment against a placebo or against no therapy at all is more likely to give a positive result than testing it against the conventional treatment, which may already be very effective. One review found that a far higher proportion of industry-funded trials than publicly funded trials did indeed compare novel treatments with placebos or no therapy.
Critical Reading: Making Sense of Papers in Life Sciences and Medicine (Routledge Study Guides) by Ben Yudkin