By Derek D. Smith
Confronted with America's army superiority, many nations are turning to guns of mass destruction (WMD) as a way to discourage usa intervention. even though, the occasions of September eleven woke up the United States to some extent of vulnerability it had by no means skilled earlier than, making it more and more unwilling to tolerate such guns within the arms of risky and unpredictable regimes. via theoretical, historic, and prescriptive lenses, this publication explores the trendy defense hindrance created by means of the dual fears of yankee encroachment and vulnerability which shape a vicious cycle of lack of confidence that demanding situations conventional notions of deterrence. utilizing Iraq and North Korea as case stories, Smith argues that the us might have to think again its overseas coverage recommendations opposed to WMD proliferation, giving renewed cognizance to shielding measures, negotiated disarmament, interdiction, and maybe preemption.
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Additional resources for Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Unaware of what was occurring on land, he is quoted as saying, “Maybe the war has already started up there, while we are doing somersaults here . . We’re going to blast them now! We will die, but we will sink them all. ”57 Fortunately the commander relented after conferring with his other officers, though the incident should serve as a sobering reminder of the limited control over wartime situations and the dangers of pre-delegation. Employing commitment tactics can be very savvy, but can also be incredibly dangerous if one’s opponent does the same or refuses to give in.
52, no. 1 (October 1973): 109. Robert Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957); Morton Halperin, Limited War in the Nuclear Age (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1963); Robert Powell, Nuclear Deterrence Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 13. Richard Betts, Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance (Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1987), 13. Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 262.
Wirtz (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000), 186–87. Sagan, “More Will Be Worse,” in The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, 52; James G. Blight and David A. Welch, “Risking ‘the Destruction of Nations’: Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis for New and Aspiring States,” Security Studies vol. 4, no. 4 (summer 1995): 824. 65 In sum, crises are often marked by surprises, mistakes, and catastrophic errors, all of which may work against the proper functioning of deterrence. Even if leaders are functionally rational, there are numerous psychological biases and influences that can increase the likelihood of misperception and “sub-rational” behavior.
Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction by Derek D. Smith