By Bar-Giora Goldberg
· In-depth assurance of recent electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures
· quite a few layout examples drawn from real engineering projects
· The accompanying CD contains electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the book
Digital frequency synthesis is utilized in sleek instant and communications applied sciences resembling radar, mobile telephony, satellite tv for pc communications, digital imaging, and spectroscopy. this can be ebook is a entire review of electronic frequency synthesis concept and functions, with a selected emphasis at the most up-to-date techniques utilizing fractional-N phase-locked loop expertise. The layout instruments within the accompany CD enable readers to paintings during the examples during this ebook for a practical simulation of tangible layout utilizing electronic frequency synthesis.
· In-depth insurance of contemporary electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures
· Numerous layout examples drawn from genuine engineering projects
· The accompanying CD comprises electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the e-book
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Extra resources for Digital frequency synthesis demystified. DDS and fractional-N PLLs
They have a very high switching speed, phase-continuous switching, and digital producibility. However, as mentioned, the bandwidth is still limited (but improving), and spurious response is affected by quantization and DAC performance. It is interesting to note that the three synthesis techniques do complement one another, and this is the main reason that more and more combination designs are emerging, mainly hybrids of PLL and DDS, to achieve wide bandwidth and good resolution. DA synthesis and DDS are integrated to achieve the speed, resolution, and capability of digital modulation (see the PTS, Schomandl, and Comstron products described in Chap.
All this is gone now. All DA designs consist of repeatable blocks, which imply efficiency in production and elegance. Another technique that is usually associated with DA is called drift cancel and is worth mentioning. The general idea is demonstrated in Fig. 1-12. A comb generator is used to generate a comb spectra line, in this example 50 MHz apart, and a free-running VCO and a bandpass filter (BPF) are used to output only one line at a time. In the example, the VCO will be tuned to 2000 MHz to output 500 MHz.
Ideally the two VCO paths should have the same delay, and the signals should cancel perfectly. In reality, this is not the case, and the cancellation effect is finite. It is usually very good close to the carrier, but degrades as we move away from the carrier. The reason is clear because the cancellation takes the form (t) Ϫ (t ϩ T), where T is the difference in the delay path of the two branches ϭ 0t ϩ n(t). 5-MHz BPF is given in Table 1-1. This implies the requirement of good phase noise characteristics from the VCO, since at, say, 100 kHz from the carrier, the cancellation effect will improve the VCO phase noise by only 15 Figure 1-12 Drift-cancel loop used in DA synthesizers.
Digital frequency synthesis demystified. DDS and fractional-N PLLs by Bar-Giora Goldberg