Read e-book online Early Urbanism on the Syrian Euphrates PDF

By Lisa Cooper

Studying archaeological facts from websites masking over 2 hundred kilometres of the banks of the Euphrates River, Lisa Cooper's first-class monograph explores the expansion and improvement of human payment within the Euphrates River Valley of Northern Syria throughout the Early and center Bronze a long time from circa 2700 to 1550 BC.

Cooper makes a speciality of the character and improvement of the city politics that existed within the quarter in the course of those sessions and highlights relevant inter-related features of the Euphrates Valley:
* the examine of particular facets of Euphrates tradition, similar to the character of city secular and spiritual structure, mortuary continues to be, and subsistence objectives, to underline the original personality of this quarter in the course of the Early and center Bronze Ages
* the extraordinary resilience of its cultural traditions over many centuries regardless of the political instability and environmental degradation.

Including stories on the tribal history of the populations, the financial system, the original geography of the Euphrates, the ethnic and social constitution of its population, and the impacts of states surrounding it, this can be a exact and worthy source for all scholars of archaeology and old heritage.

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While this practice is less productive agriculturally, it is certainly sustainable and resilient (Wilkinson 2004: 48–9). Another way in which to enhance crop growth is to apply fertilizer, namely manure, on the land. Phosphorus and nitrogen contents of manure are favourable for plant growth. In addition, by increasing the growth of the plant canopy, the resultant shade can increase the amount of water moisture retained in the soil. Uses of manuring practices in many dry-farming zones in the world today have been largely successful, although in years of extreme drought, manuring may ‘heat’ the soil so much that it causes young plants to die off (Wilkinson 2004: 50).

Within the Tell es-Sweyhat embayment, still other local wares have been reported, these including jars with squared rims or hollowed tops, and jars with grooved, exterior rims (Wilkinson 2004: 90). Such locally distinctive features indicate that while Euphrates settlements belonged to the same cultural horizon overall, they nonetheless possessed distinctive local traditions which found expression in several aspects of their material culture, including pottery. 11 INTRODUCTION Phase 3 (2600–2450 bc)3 Although several vessel types appearing in Phases 1 and 2 continue into Phase 3, this phase is also distinguished by several new vessel forms and wares.

By applying modern levels of rainfall in northern Syria over a 30-year period to the third millennium bc, and accounting for inter-annual variability, Wilkinson calculated that crop failure would have occurred in the area around Tell es-Sweyhat once every five years if the inhabitants had not taken additional measures to ensure the success of their crop through the incorporation of a yearly fallow system or manuring (Wilkinson 1994: 499– 500). This statistic clearly underlines the marginal nature of the region and the necessity of incorporating strategies in the agricultural economy to offset losses resulting from insufficient rainfall.

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Early Urbanism on the Syrian Euphrates by Lisa Cooper

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