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N and each j1 , . . , jt = 1, . . is for all z ∈ H. Then we can verify that p = ai1 . . jt bj1 . . bjt . We have p ∈ N (La , Rb ) ∩ R((La , Rb )s+t ) and so s + t + 1 ≤ α(La , Rb ). It follows that α(a) + α(b∗ ) − 1 ≤ α(La , Rb ). (ii) Suppose there exists x ∈ N (b) ∩ R(bt ) with x = 1 and suppose there exists y ∈ H with y ∈ / N (as ) + R(a). Define the rank one operator q ∈ I by q(z) = z, x y for all z ∈ H. If δ(La , Rb ) ≤ s + t then N ((La , Rb )s+t ) + R(La , Rb ) = I. Thus we can write q = v+w for some v ∈ N ((La , Rb )s+t ) and some w ∈ R(La , Rb ).

5) we find that SP (xP )3 = 0 in this case. 2], we infer that (Sx)3 ∈ socA for all x ∈ A, as desired. We note some consequences for length one elementary operators. 10. Let Ma,b ∈ E (A) for a semisimple unital Banach algebra A. Then every element in the range of Ma,b has finite spectrum if and only if ba ∈ socA. In this case Ma,b (x)2 ∈ socA for all x ∈ A. Proof. Since σ(axb) ∪ {0} = σ(bax) ∪ {0} for each x ∈ A, the “if”-part is evident. 8 to the case at hand to obtain that bP aP ∈ soc AP for every P ∈ PrimA and bP aP = 0 except for at most finitely many P ’s.

N. Abstract. Let E1 (A) be the closure in the point-norm topology of the set of all completely contractive elementary operators on a C ∗ -algebra A. n. n. are completely positive maps on A and φ ∈ E1 (A) , then ψ ∈ E1 (A) . n. n. if and only if the normal and the singular part of φ are both in E1 (R) . n. all maps in E1 (R) . A specific example on B(H) is also studied. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000). Primary 46L07; Secondary 47B47. Keywords. Elementary operators, complete contractions, C ∗ -algebras, von Neumann algebras.

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Elementary Calculus - An Infnitesimal Approach by H. Keisler

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