By Frederick J. Horwood
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HANS H. , and Ulbrecht, M. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 25, 100 (1957). , and Wustrow, H. J . Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 25, 110 (1957). , and Weber, H. H. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 11, 160 (1953). Attempts toward a Formulation of Biological Use of Energy in Terms of Chemical Potentials FRITZ LIPMANN The Rockefeller Institute, New York, New York Chemical and biological definitions are becoming more and more confluent. In this situation, terminologies occasionally need a mutual adjustment for which some common sense has to be used.
Hoffmann-Berling, H. Fortschr. Zool. 11, 142 ( 1 9 5 8 ) . Portzehl, Η. Z. Naturforsch. , and Portzehl, Η. Z. Naturforsch. 9b, 550 ( 1 9 5 4 ) . Weber, Η. H. Arch. ges. Physiol, Pflügers 235, 206 ( 1934). Portzehl, Η. Z. Naturforsch. 7b, 1 ( 1 9 5 2 ) . Marsh, Β. B. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 9, 247 ( 1952). Bendall, J. R. Nature 170, 1058 ( 1 9 5 2 ) . Portzehl, H. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 26, 373 ( 1 9 5 7 ) ; Weber, Η. H. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 26, 667 ( 1 9 5 7 ) . Weber, Η. H. "The Motility of Muscle and Cells," 69 pp.
It is found empirically that the quantity ab is approximately equal to the rate of liberation of energy during a maintained isometric tetanus. Now & is a velocity, c m / s e c , and α is a force: but it has been found that a is the same a as ap peared before in the expression, ax, for the heat of shortening a distance x, expressed, of course, in mechanical units. Thus, ab is the rate at which heat of shortening would appear if a muscle were to shorten with velocity &. There is no reason a priori that one can see why the chemical and energetic expense of maintaining a contraction at constant length should be the same as the expense of shortening with velocity b.
Elementary Counterpoint by Frederick J. Horwood