By Richard M. Bird, François Vaillancourt
Economic Decentralisation in constructing nations beneficial properties vital, unique and up to date study from major students assessing economic decentralization in constructing nations. It has wealthy and sundry case-study fabric from nations as varied as India, China, Colombia, Bosnia-Herzogovina and South Africa.
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Additional info for Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries (Trade and Development)
Bird and François Vaillancourt need may manifest itself in two ways, both of which may reduce the amount of equalization attainable through a formal transfer system. 49 Second, not all the equally poor may be considered to be equally deserving in political terms, so some may do better than others. In Indonesia, for instance, the frontier province of Irian Jaya receives more than three times the average provincial per capita transfer. Frontier regions also receive special attention from central governments in countries such as Argentina and Chile.
In the absence of such data, simpler approaches, based on, for example, population and a simple “categorization” of localities (by size, by type, or perhaps by region), seem more likely as a rule to prove useful in measuring general expenditure needs. Despite the strong theoretical reasons for doing so, however, few developing countries appear to include explicit measures of ﬁscal capacity in their formulas. Examples of where this is done are India and Nigeria, 34 Richard M. Bird and François Vaillancourt where some measure of tax effort is included in the basic distributional formula to states, and Korea, which assumes that a standard tax rate is applied by cities and lowers the transfer if the actual rate is lower (Ahmad, 1997).
How homogeneous is it: in terms of language, in its ethnic groups, and in its unifying cultural myths? To what extent do state boundaries coincide with heterogeneity in any of these dimensions? Are regional interests explicitly represented in the central political structure? How? 26 Developing countries tend to face different problems, and possibilities, than developed countries in this as in other areas, in part arising from political instability, in part reﬂecting their economic status, and in part from lesser technical capacity.
Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries (Trade and Development) by Richard M. Bird, François Vaillancourt