By Douglas L. Wheeler
Portugal is a small Western ecu state with a wide, specified prior replete with either triumph and tragedy. one of many continent's oldest realms, Portugal has frontiers which are basically unchanged because the overdue 14th century. The country's targeted personality and 850-year heritage as an self reliant nation current a number of curious paradoxes. As of 1974, whilst a lot of the rest of the Portuguese in a foreign country empire was once decolonized, Portuguese society looked to be the main ethnically homogeneous of the 2 Iberian states and of a lot of Europe. This, however Portuguese society had acquired in the course of 2,000 years of infusions of different ethnic teams in invasions and immigration: Phoenicians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Suevi, Visigoths, Muslims (Arab and Berber), Jews, Italians, Flemings, Burgundian French, black Africans, and Asians. certainly, Portugal has been a crossroads, regardless of its relative isolation within the western nook of the Iberian Peninsula, among the West and North Africa, Tropical Africa, and Asia and the US. considering that 1974, Portugal's society has develop into much less homogeneous as there was major immigration of former topics from her erstwhile abroad empire.The 3rd variation of historic Dictionary of Portugal drastically expands at the moment variation via a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of thousands of cross-referenced dictionary entries on very important people, areas, occasions, and associations, in addition to on major political, fiscal, social, and cultural features.
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Additional resources for Historical Dictionary of Portugal (Historical Dictionaries of Europe)
Politics were dominated not only by efforts against the Muslims in 8 • INTRODUCTION Portugal (until 1250) and in nearby southern Spain (until 1492), but also by internecine warfare among the kingdoms of Castile, Léon, Aragon, and Portugal. A final comeback of Muslim forces was defeated at the battle of Salado (1340) by allied Castilian and Portuguese forces. In the emerging Kingdom of Portugal, the monarch gradually gained power over and neutralized the nobility and the Church. The historic and commonplace Portuguese saying “From Spain, neither a good wind nor a good marriage” was literally played out in diplomacy and war in the late 14th-century struggles for mastery in the peninsula.
There was a power vacuum as the monarch was absent, foreign armies were present, and new political notions of liberalism and constitutional monarchy were exciting various groups of citizens. Again England came to the rescue, this time in the form of the armies of the duke of Wellington. Three successive French invasions of Portugal were defeated and expelled, and Wellington succeeded in carrying the war against Napoleon across the Portuguese frontier into Spain. The presence of the English army, the new French-born liberal ideas, and the political vacuum combined to create revolutionary conditions.
With a mass protest, public teachers’ strike, and street demonstrations in March 2008, Portugal’s media, educational, and social systems experienced more severe pressures. With the spreading global recession beginning in September 2008, Portugal’s economic and financial systems became more troubled. Contemporary Portugal Owing to its geographic location on the southwestern most edge of continental Europe, Portugal has been historically in but not of Europe. Almost from the beginning of its existence in the 12th century as an independent monarchy, Portugal turned its back on Europe and oriented itself toward the Atlantic Ocean.
Historical Dictionary of Portugal (Historical Dictionaries of Europe) by Douglas L. Wheeler