By Bailey, Michael David; Durrant, Jonathan Bryan
Witchcraft has confirmed a major, if tough, old topic to enquire and interpret over the past 4 a long time or so. sleek ancient study into witchcraft started as an try and tease out the worldview of normal humans in sixteenth- and 17th-century England, however it quick elevated to surround the historical past of witchcraft in so much cultures and societies that experience existed with scholarly reports now extending again to the time of earliest legislations code that punished sorcery, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.), and ahead to the final witchcraft situations in England, these of Helen Duncan and Jane Yorke, attempted in 1944. There has additionally been an important quantity of curiosity within the improvement of the trendy faith of witchcraft, or Wicca, as quite a few varieties of neo-paganism proceed to draw adherents.
The moment variation of Historical Dictionary of Witchcraft covers the heritage of the Witchcraft from 1750 B.C.E. although the fashionable day. this is often performed via a chronology, an introductory essay, and an intensive bibliography. The dictionary part has over three hundred cross-referenced entries on witch hunts, witchcraft trials, and comparable practices all over the world. This ebook is a wonderful entry aspect for college kids, researchers, and a person eager to understand extra concerning the heritage of witchcraft.
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The rites performed by the followers of Dionysos included the consumption of wine, ecstatic dancing, animal sacrifice, and sexual frenzy. In Roman times, the Bacchanalia became so associated with orgies of uncontrolled revelry, sexuality, and immorality that it was outlawed by the Roman Senate in 186 BCE. Descriptions of Bacchanalia can be found in Euripides’s Bacchae (5th century BCE) and Livy’s History of Rome (c. 10 CE). See also ANTIQUITY, WITCHCRAFT IN. 31 32 • BACON, ROGER (CA. 1213–1291) BACON, ROGER (ca.
Trials seem, however, to have been rare, and the persecution of sorcerers even rarer. It may be that the foundation of law and justice in the early-medieval period, accusatorial procedure, limited the number of accusations of sorcery and witchcraft against suspected individuals. In accusatorial procedure, private individuals brought cases against each other, and plaintiffs were responsible for prosecuting a case and providing evidence of the guilt of the person accused. It was particularly difficult to offer hard evidence or reliable witnesses for crimes that were secretive by nature, such as poisoning or sorcery.
At each stage, but especially during the questions about the witches’ sabbaths, a suspect was asked to name her accomplices. To help extract all of this detailed information, the suspects were tortured in extreme ways, for long periods of time, and over many consecutive sessions of interrogation. Tortures included the thumbscrews and the strappado (including the innovative use of weights and pulleys to create more pain). The idea of torture in these instances was to create sufficient pain to produce a confession without permanently, or at least visibly, harming the suspect’s body, but in some places more brutal and damaging forms of torture, such as the boots, were used; the use of the boots led to irreparably crushed bones 14 • INTRODUCTION such as tibiae and fibulae.
Historical dictionary of witchcraft by Bailey, Michael David; Durrant, Jonathan Bryan