By Allen Louis. Edwards
"This publication is worried with suggestions for the development of perspective scales. as soon as a suite of angle statements has been gathered, there are common tools which were utilized in the improvement of perspective scales. this sort of equipment includes using a judging crew. The judging crew isn't requested to reply to the statements by way of their very own contract or war of words with them, yet quite to pass judgement on the measure of favorableness or unfavorableness expressed by way of every one assertion. those judgments are then used as a foundation for deciding on scale values of the statements upon a mental continuum. as soon as the size values of the statements are recognized, matters can then be requested to precise their contract or confrontation with the person statements. angle rankings for those matters can then be bought established upon the previous wisdom of the size values of the statements. The judgment tools for developing perspective scales range simply within the demeanour during which the judgments and scale values of the statements are bought. They contain the tactic of paired comparisons, the strategy of equal-appearing periods, and the strategy of successive durations. those equipment are defined in Chapters 2 via five. A moment approach to constructing perspective scales relies upon direct responses of contract or war of words with angle statements. because the reaction equipment don't require past wisdom of the dimensions values of the statements in any specific feel, a judging crew isn't really useful. it's enough for the reaction tools if you can think that the reaction "agree" to an announcement shows a extra favorable angle than the reaction "disagree," or vice versa. The reaction equipment for developing angle scales contain the strategy of summated scores and scalogram research. those tools are offered in Chapters 6 and seven. one other process for developing an perspective scale that uses either judgments and responses is defined in bankruptcy eight. this technique is called the scale-discrimination strategy. it really is an early attempt upon the a part of Kilpatrick and myself at a synthesis of a scaling and a reaction approach for constructing an perspective scale. H-technique, as defined in bankruptcy nine, is usually a reaction approach. It has as its target the development of a cumulative scale--a type of scale approximately which extra can be stated within the textual content. during this bankruptcy i've got additionally defined one other attempt at a synthesis of scaling and reaction tools which, for wish of a higher identify, i've got known as W-technique. This, in short, represents the content material of this book"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database checklist (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). Read more...
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6. Yov example, taking the entries in the first col umn, we have = Sl - Sl = Sl Z\3 Sl - Sz Zl4 Sl -S, Zl5 Sl - s. - S's Zl6 Zn or, in general, -s. 12) where j can take values from I to n. 13) 36 Techniques of Attitude Scale Construction n where 2 ZM means that column (1) is held constant and the j=} summation is over the n rows of the table. The first term on the right is n times the scale value of Stimulus 1 and the secorid term is the sum of the scale values o f a l l n stimuli on the psychological continuum.
3 could be obtained from those in the first column. As a maitter of convenience in our calculations of the scale values for the various stimuli, we write the entries above the diagonal as well as those below. That is why we have also included the diagonal entries. CASE V : C O M P L E T E D A T A To illustrate the calculation of scale values, we make use of data provided by Hill (1953). At the time of the Korean war. 2 STIMULI 1 2 3 i rt 1 2 3 Z21 Z3i Zi\ Zl2 Z22 Z32 Z12 •Jn) Zm Zl3 Z23 Z33 Zi3 Zn3 j Zu Z21 Z3i Zil n Zin Z2n Z3n Zin Sums Means 2-C2Zi.
14 Techniques of Attitude Scale Construction 3. Avoid statements that may be interpreted in more than one way. 4. Avoid statements that are irrelevant to the psychological object under consideration. 5. Avoid statements that are likely to be endorsed by almost everyone or by almost no one. 6. Select statements that are believed to cover the entire range of the affective scale of interest. 7. Keep the language ofthe statements simple, clear, and direct. 8. Statements should be short, rarely exceeding 20 words.
Techniques of attitude scale construction by Allen Louis. Edwards